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Hyperledger Fabric

Hyperledger Fabric is a legal blockchain network that is set up by companies looking to form a consortium. The “members” are the organisations that contribute to the development of the Hyperledger Fabric network.

Each member organisation in the blockchain network is accountable for organising their peers to participate in the network. All of these peers are made up of cryptographic materials such as Certificate Authorities and other data.

To obtain transactions, clients within the organisation submit invocation requests to their peers in the member organisation. Any specialised portal/application serving specific business/organizational operations might be considered a client. To interact with the Hyperledger Fabric network, the client application uses the Hyperledger Fabric SDK or the REST web service. Induction of Chaincode (similar to Ethereum Smart Contract) in peers triggers transaction invocation requests.

Unlike Ethereum, peers in the Hyperledger Fabric blockchain network have distinct roles: each peer maintains a single ledger for each channel to which they have subscribed. As a result, Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) was developed (DLT).

So not all peer nodes are equal. There are a wide plethora of peer nodes with different roles in the network:

  • Endorser Peer

  • Anchor Peer

  • Orderer Peer

Endorser peer

Endorser peers are a type of peer (i.e. Endorsing peer) where the client application transmits or deciphers a "transaction invocation request,"

  • The Endorser peer verifies the transaction, checking the requester's certificate details and roles.
  • It also runs the Chaincode (a.k.a. Smart Contract) and simulates the transaction's conclusion, but it does not update the ledger.

Once the aforementioned two processes have been accomplished, the endorser must decide whether to approve or disapprove the transaction.

Because just the Endorser node executes Chaincode (Smart Contract), there is no need to deploy Chaincode in every node of the network, which improves the network's scalability.

Anchor Peer

The Anchor peer or cluster of Anchor peers is configured during Channel configuration. You can configure secret channels and transactions among the peers of a channel in Hyperledger Fabric that are only visible to them.

It also receives broadcasts and keeps the rest of the organisation up to date. Anchor peers can be found. As a result, any peer who has been designated as an Anchor peer can be found by the Orderer peer or any other peer.

Orderer Peer

The Orderer peer is responsible for maintaining a consistent ledger state across the Hyperledger Fabric network as the network's central communication channel. The orderer peer creates the block and distributes it to all of the peers.

The Orderer application is based on a message-oriented design. There are currently two options for implementing Orderer peer:

  • Solo: It is a single-point failure that is suitable for construction. For the production-ready network, Solo should not be used.

  • Kafka: A production-ready Hyperledger Fabric network that makes use of Kafka as the Orderer. Kafka is a fault-tolerant communications software with high throughput.

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